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Chronological Analysis of the Scriptures- Literal interpretation of the scriptures led some people to conclude that the Earth was created approximately 6,000 years old.

In fact, Archbishop Usher of Ireland calculated that the Earth was created at 9 AM on It was believed that prior to the Great Flood, Earths surface was flat and its climate was mild.

The closure temperature of a system can be experimentally determined in the lab by artificially resetting sample minerals using a high-temperature furnace.

As the mineral cools, the crystal structure begins to form and diffusion of isotopes slows.

Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes, with each isotope of an element differing only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide. That is, at some random point in time, an atom of such a nuclide will be transformed into a different nuclide by the process known as radioactive decay.

Mountains, erosion, and variations in climate were considered to be punishment for the sins committed by humanity.

Many radioactive substances decay from one nuclide into a final, stable decay product (or "daughter") through a series of steps known as a decay chain.

In the early 1950s, scientists established theories for using the decay of radioactive potassium (Ar) as a clock for dating certain types of rocks.

Called “noble” because it rarely bonds with other elements, argon (Ar) is one of the six noble gases.

At a certain temperature, the crystal structure has formed sufficiently to prevent diffusion of isotopes.

This temperature is what is known as blocking temperature and represents the temperature below which the mineral is a closed system to measurable diffusion of isotopes.

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